common rail diesel injection system technology

Diesel fueled vehicles are earning a second glance with new common rail diesel injection system technology. Gone are the days of soot-belching, engine roaring diesel cars. Diesel is losing the “tractor trailer image” and large rig stereotype. Today, diesel fueled vehicles are using direct fuel injection technology that is efficient and delivers high performance.

In common rail systems, diesel fuel is drawn up through the transfer pump and filter. Then it is stored under high pressure (up to 1700 bar) within the common rail itself. The pressure is controlled by an electronic device that operates independently from the engine speed and quantity of fuel injected. The electronic diesel control device can control with great accuracy and timing the opening and closing of the valves that deliver the diesel into the cylinders Because the diesel is already accumulated within the rail, it can be quickly injected into the cylinders, leading to increased performance and reduced fuel consumption.

The common rail diesel system has been around for almost 50 years. The first prototype was developed by Mr. Hiber in Switzerland. Denso Corporation in Japan developed the Common Rail Fuel System for Heavy Duty Vehicles. In the 1990’s, after acquiring the design from Fiat Group, the modern common rail system was fully developed for mass production by the German company Robert Bosch GmbH. Today, common rail diesel injectors can be found in many car makes and models.

Gold part is the Common Rail Injector

Gold part is the Common Rail Injector

The early generations of the Bosch Common Rail injectors used magnetic solenoids to control the injection process. The third generation Common Rail used thin piezo crystals which expand when electric current is applied. Bosch is working on new common rail injectors that use even higher pressures of more than 2000 bar.

Since common rail injectors store fuel at high pressure, they can provide better and faster fuel atomization, or the conversion of fuel into vapour or sprayed droplets. This allows diesel fuel to burn cleaner because there are less exhaust emissions. Diesel is fast becoming an option for a cleaner, greener-loving population of drivers.

Today’s diesel fuels have less hydrocarbons and produce less emissions. Coupled with modern technology common rail systems as well as the development of biodiesel (made from plant oils or animal fats rather than petroleum) diesel cars are fast becoming the next step in vehicle development. If you are not convinced, note that nearly 40 percent of commuter vehicles in western Europe are now diesel-fueled. Modern diesel is cleaner burning and better for the environment. Today’s diesel cars are faster, quieter and a pleasure to drive thanks to the modern common rail diesel injection systems.